Karst in Serbia occurs in bordering parts of the country.
Division of limestone mass was caused by considerable presence of fluvial erosion in Serbian karst. Numerous allogenuos courses dissected, or are still dissecting the limestones. In many cases, the development of karstic processes converted the surface drainage into underground drainage systems. That way numerous systems of swallow holes and related springs were formed. Both alluvial and cavernous ponor zones and swallow holes are present, draining rivers and streams of considerable flow.
A great number of karst springs exist in Serbia. Both types of outflow (gravitational and siphonal) occur among the springs with major discharge. Springs are characterized by high discharge oscillations, many of them drying up during dry periods. During that periods, the discharge of the strongest springs is reduced to several hundreds l/s. Compared with the average maximal discharge amounting to 10 m3/s, during dry period reduction is several tens of times. Great number of springs is used for water supply of adjacent settlements.
Many river courses sink on the contact with limestones, reappearing
again on the surface in the form of karst springs. The underground water
connections identified so far, confirm the presence of well developed
hydrological systems in the karst of Serbia.
SURFACE KARST MORPHOLOGY
In the surface morphology of Serbian karst, dolines and uvalas abound. Microkarstic features occur only sporadically, and poljes are rare. Dolines are of various forms and dimensions. Usually they are filled with residual material, rarely are they rocky. At some areas swallow holes are very numerous.
Amongst larger karst features, uvalas are the most numerous. Originated
by karstification of valleys in karst, uvalas are elongated and follow
ancient valley direction. They could occur by combining of dolines, but
that is less frequent case. Most of the uvalas contain courses sinking
underground, but there are as well dry uvalas without water flow.
Speleological explorations of the caves in Serbia have been carried out during the past hundred years. Alhough central speleological cadastre does not exist, it is estimated that more than 4000 caves were explored. Out of that number, about ten caves were, or still are arranged for touristic exploitation. Because of comparatively well preserved river system, taking into account dimensions, dominating cave types are: inflow caves, outflow caves and through caves. The length of largest varies from 2 km to 7.5 km.
Because of comparatively small thickness of limestone mass, the denivelation in caves is small. The depth of largest caves is between 150 and 280 m.
Take a look at the map and the lists of some prominent features of
Serbian karst: largest uvalas and poljes, major karst springs, longest
underground coursers in Serbian karst, and longest and deepest caves in
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